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ebook PDF 《Introduction to RF Equipment and System Design》

《Introduction to RF Equipment and System Design》

 

 PDF281page

 

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
CHAPTER 1
Introduction 1
1.1 Definitions 1
1.2 What the Reader Should Already Know 3
1.3 Style of Approach 5
1.4 Goals in System Design 7
1.5 The Spirit of System Design 7
1.6 Reliability and Availability 9
1.7 Effects of User Profile 10
1.8 Project Working 11
References 12
CHAPTER 2
Available Parameters 15
2.1 Standardization and Regulations 15
2.2 Frequency 16
2.3 Power 22
2.4 NF 24
2.5 RF Transmission Lines 25
2.6 Geographical Topology 28
2.7 Modulation 29
2.8 Effects of the Baseband Signal 31
2.9 Signal Processing 32
2.10 Nonelectrical Factors 33
References 36
CHAPTER 3
Systems Problems Involving Wave-Propagation Mechanisms 37
3.1 Propagation Models in Brief with Reference to System Design 38
3.2 Means to Counter Adverse Conditions (Stationary and Nonstationary) 42
3.2.1 Attenuation 42

3.2.2 Scattering 46
3.2.3 Multipath Problems 48
3.2.4 Interference Issues 51
3.3 Examples 51
3.3.1 Unexpected Ionospheric Disturbances at HFs 51
3.3.2 Interference Problems in Microwave Links 54
3.3.3 Reception of Weak Geostationary Satellite Signals 59
References 60
CHAPTER 4
Circuits and Components for System Evaluations and Design 63
4.1 Standard or Custom Design? 63
4.2 Passive Modules 64
4.2.1 Terminations 64
4.2.2 Attenuators 65
4.2.3 Power Dividers and Combiners 66
4.2.4 Filters 66
4.2.5 Directional Couplers 70
4.2.6 Isolators 71
4.3 Active Modules 71
4.3.1 Detectors 72
4.3.2 Switches 74
4.3.3 Mixers 76
4.3.4 Amplifiers 79
4.3.5 Oscillators 83
4.3.6 Modulators and Demodulators 87
4.3.7 Upconverters/Downconverters 90
4.3.8 Power Supplies 90
4.4 Mechanics 91
4.5 Purchasing Modules for Equipment Development 93
References 94
CHAPTER 5
Antennas and Associated Hardware 97
5.1 Antenna Selection Criteria 98
5.2 Some Antenna Types 103
5.2.1 Individual Antenna Elements 104
5.2.2 Antenna Arrays 113
5.2.3 Vehicle-Mounted Arrays 128
5.3 Antennas as Mechanical Elements 134
5.3.1 Antenna Mounting on Test Vehicles 134
5.3.2 A Tracking System for a 3-m Reflector Antenna 137
5.4 RF Transmission Lines 140
5.4.1 Coaxial Cables 141
5.4.2 Waveguides 146
5.5 Connectors 147
5.5.1 General Performance Requirements 148

5.5.2 Fundamental Construction 148
5.5.3 Common RF Connector Types for Mechanical Modules 149
5.5.4 Connectors as Components in Milled or Sheet Assemblies 152
5.6 Rotary Joints and Flexible Waveguides 153
5.6.1 Rotary Joints 154
5.6.2 Flexible Waveguides 155
References 157
CHAPTER 6
TXs, RXs, and Transceivers 159
6.1 Requirements for TX 160
6.2 Block Diagram 166
6.3 Choosing the Building Blocks 168
6.4 Requirements for RXs 170
6.5 Block Diagram 174
6.6 Choosing the Building Blocks 176
6.7 Selecting an RX for the System 179
6.8 Transceiver Specialties 180
6.9 Examples 183
6.9.1 Satellite System Ground Beacon 183
6.9.2 Material Analysis with Millimeter Waves 188
6.9.3 Mobile Millimeter-Wave Radar 193
6.9.4 Microwave Telemetry System 198
6.9.5 UHF Time and Frequency Reference 203
References 212
CHAPTER 7
RF Measuring Instrumentation 215
7.1 Defining a Test Setup 215
7.2 Typical Test Instruments for Systems 217
7.3 Ready-Made or Tailored 218
7.4 About Computer Control 219
7.5 Examples 220
7.5.1 Estimating VHF Ground Conductivity 221
7.5.2 High-Power HF VNA 225
7.5.3 Pattern and Impedance Measurements of Compact Antennas 226
7.5.4 Test Instrumentation for Air Navigation Facilities 229
References 241
List of Acronyms 243
List of Symbols 249
About the Author 253
Index 255

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How far(long) the transmitter cover?

The transmission range depends on many factors. The true distance is based on the antenna installing height , antenna gain, using environment like building and other obstructions , sensitivity of the receiver, antenna of the receiver . Installing antenna more high and using in the countryside , the distance will much more far.

EXAMPLE 5W FM Transmitter use in the city and hometown:

I have a USA customer use 5W fm transmitter with GP antenna in his hometown ,and he test it with a car, it cover 10km(6.21mile).

I test the 5W fm transmitter with GP antenna in my hometown ,it cover about 2km(1.24mile).

I test the 5W fm transmitter with GP antenna in Guangzhou city ,it cover about only 300meter(984ft).

Below are the approximate range of different power FM Transmitters. ( The range is diameter )

0.1W ~ 5W FM Transmitter :100M ~1KM

5W ~15W FM Ttransmitter : 1KM ~ 3KM

15W ~ 80W FM Transmitter : 3KM ~10KM

80W ~500W FM Transmitter : 10KM ~30KM

500W ~1000W FM Transmitter : 30KM ~ 50KM

1KW ~ 2KW FM Transmitter : 50KM ~100KM

2KW ~5KW FM Transmitter : 100KM ~150KM

5KW ~10KW FM Transmitter : 150KM ~200KM

How to contact us for the transmitter?

Call me +8615915959450 OR
Email me sky@fmuser.org
1.How far you want to cover in diameter ?
2.How tall of you tower ?
3.Where are you from ?
And we will give you more professional advice.

About Us

FMUSER.ORG is a system integration company focusing on RF wireless transmission / studio video audio equipment / streaming and data processing .We are providing everything from advice and consultancy through rack integration to installation, commissioning and training.
 
We offer FM Transmitter, Analog TV Transmitter, Digital TV transmitter, VHF UHF Transmitter, Antennas, Coaxial Cable Connectors, STL, On Air Processing, Broadcast Products for the Studio, RF Signal Monitoring, RDS Encoders, Audio Processors and Remote Site Control Units, IPTV Products, Video / Audio Encoder / Decoder, designed to meet the needs of both large international broadcast networks and small private stations alike.
 
Our solution has FM Radio Station / Analog TV Station / Digital TV Station / Audio Video Studio Equipment / Studio Transmitter Link / Transmitter Telemetry System / Hotel TV System / IPTV Live Broadcasting / Streaming Live Broadcast / Video Conference / CATV Broadcasting system.
 
We are using advanced technology products for all the systems, because we know the high reliability and high performance are so important for the system and solution . At the same time we also have to make sure our products system with a very reasonable price.
 
We have customers of public and commercial broadcasters, telecom operators and regulation authorities , and we also offer solution and products to many hundreds of smaller, local and community broadcasters .
 
FMUSER.ORG has been exporting more than 13 years and have clients all over the world. With 13 years experience in this field ,we have a professional team to solve customer's all kinds of problems. We dedicated in supplying the extremely reasonable pricing of professional products & services.
Contact email : sky@fmuser.org

Our Factory

We have modernization of the factory . You are welcome to visit our factory when you come to China.

At present , there are already 1095 customers around the world visited our Guangzhou Tianhe office . If you come to China , you are welcome to visit us .

At Fair

This is our participation in 2012 Global Sources Hong Kong Electronics Fair . Customers from all over the world finally have a chance to get together.

Where is Fmuser ?

You can search this numbers " 23.127460034623816,113.33224654197693 " in google map , then you can find our fmuser office .

FMUSER Guangzhou office is in Tianhe District which is the center of the Canton . Very near to the Canton Fair , guangzhou railway station, xiaobei road and dashatou , only need 10 minutes if take TAXI . Welcome friends around the world to visit and negotiate .

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