The classification of aerial

The technical development of mobile antenna is very rapid, original China basically is used common directional and complete to model mobile antenna, use mechanical antenna generally later, the mobile net of city of a few provinces has begun to use report to move antenna of aerial and double polarization shift now. As a result of the use frequency of all sorts of antenna that use in mobile system at present, gain and from beginning to end are not older than waiting for index difference, accord with network index requirement, we change the emphasis the influence aspect of pair of aerial direction graphs and wireless network from angle of mobile antenna declination, undertake analytic comparative to a few kinds of afore-mentioned antenna.

2.1 omnidirectional antenna

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Omnidirectional antenna, it is 360 ° in the expression on horizontal way graph namely even radiate, the tropism of not in the proper way that says usually namely, on perpendicular direction graph expression is the beam that has certain breadth, wave valve width is usually smaller, gain is bigger. The station that omnidirectional antenna uses as large as outskirt county area to make commonly in mobile system, cover range big.

2.2 directional antenna
Directional antenna, behaving on horizontal way graph for radiate of limits of proper point of view, the tropism of in the right way that says usually namely, on perpendicular direction graph expression is the beam that has certain breadth, like be the same as omnidirectional antenna, wave valve width is smaller, gain is bigger. The station that directional antenna uses at village of the city zone to make commonly in mobile system, cover range small, user density is big, frequency utilization rate is high.

Build different type according to the requirement of group net base station, and of different type base the antenna that the station can choose different type according to need. The basis of the choice is afore-mentioned technical parameter. Used each horizontal way gain namely to the station completely for instance basic and identical complete to model aerial, and what directional station used horizontal way gain to have apparent change namely is directional model aerial. Choose B of horizontal beam width to be the antenna of 65 ° in the urban district commonly, in the suburb B of width of beam of optional choose level is 65 ° , 90 ° or the antenna of 120 ° (decide according to station configuration and local geography environment) , and the omnidirectional antenna that chooses to be able to realize big range to enclothe in countryside is most of economy.
2.3 mechanical antenna
Alleged and mechanical antenna, the mobile antenna that shows use machinery adjusts declination angle namely.

Mechanical antenna and ground are perpendicular after installation is fine, if ask because of what the network optimizes, the place that needs to adjust bracket of aerial the reverse side changes the dip of aerial to come true. In adjusting a process, although aerial advocate of valve direction enclothe a distance to change apparently, but aerial is perpendicular the amplitude of heft and horizontal heft is changeless, so aerial direction graph allows changeful entity.
 

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Carry out a proof: The optimal declination angle of mechanical antenna is 1 ° - 5 ° ; Instantly bend angle is in 5 ° - when 10 ° change, graph of its antenna direction has a bit be out of shape but change is not big; Instantly bend angle is in 10 ° - when 15 ° change, change of graph of its antenna direction is bigger; When mechanical antenna declination after 15 ° , change of record of aerial direction figure is very big, the deformation of a kind of pear grown in Hebei Province from doing not have declination is spindly, at this moment although advocate valve direction enclothes a distance to shorten apparently, but graph of whole antenna direction is not to be in this base inside station fan area, in the signal that this radical also can get to stand inside area of fan of adjacent radical station, cause the interference inside serious system thereby.

Additional, in be safeguarded daily, if want to adjust angle of mechanical antenna declination, whole system should shut machine, cannot adjusting undertake monitoring while aerial is obliquitous; Mechanical antenna adjusts aerial declination horn to spend special trouble, general need safeguards personnel to climb aerial to put place undertake adjustment; The declination angle of mechanical antenna is to pass computer simulation to analyse software calculative theory to be worth, have certain deviation with angle of actual and optimal declination; Mechanical antenna adjusts obliquitous pace to be 1 ° into degree, 3 rank intermodulation index is - 120dBc.

2.4 report move aerial
Alleged report moves aerial, the mobile antenna that shows use electron adjusts declination angle namely.

The principle of electronic declination is to adopt a change in all line blast aerial brace up child phasic, change the amplitude size of perpendicular heft and horizontal heft, the change synthesizes heft field strong intensity, make thereby of aerial perpendicular directional graph declination. As a result of aerial the field strong intensity of each direction increases at the same time and reduce, change of graph of direction of the antenna after assuring to changing dip angle is not big, make advocate valve direction enclothes a distance to shorten, make again at the same time whole directional graph is serving village fan reduce inside the area cover an area but do not generate interference again. Carry out a proof, angle of declination of electric tone antenna is in 1 ° - when 5 ° change, of graph of its antenna direction and mechanical antenna roughly identical; Instantly bend angle is in 5 ° - when 10 ° change, scheme of its antenna direction is rigidder of aerial have improvement a bit; Instantly bend angle is in 10 ° - when 15 ° change, scheme of its antenna direction is rigidder the change of aerial is bigger; When mechanical antenna declination after 15 ° , scheme of its antenna direction is rigidder of aerial apparently different, at this moment change of record of aerial direction figure is not big, advocate valve direction enclothes a distance to shorten apparently, graph of whole antenna direction is in this base inside station fan area, increase declination angle, can make fan area enclothes an area to narrow, but do not generate interference, we need such directional figure, because this uses report to move aerial to be able to be reduced,breathe out caustic, reduce interference.

Additional, electric tone antenna allows a system to be opposite below the circumstance of ceaseless machine perpendicular horn of directional graph declination undertakes adjustment, real time monitors adjustment result, the pace that adjusts dip angle enters precision taller also (for 0.1 ° ) , can realize fine adjustment to the network accordingly; Of electric tone antenna 3 rank intermodulation index is - 150dBc, more mechanical antenna differs 30dBc, be helpful for removing adjacent frequency interference and stray interference.

Antenna of 2.5 pairs of polarization
Double polarization antenna is technology of a kind of new-style antenna, combined + 45 ° and - 45 ° direction of two pairs of polarization the antenna of mutual orthogonality works at the same time in send and receive duplex operation mode to fall, because its most outstanding this advantage is economic and individual directional base the aerial amount of the station; Of net of mobile of general GSM number directional base station (3 areas) should use 9 antenna, every sector uses 3 antenna (the space distributes part, one hair two close) , if use double polarization antenna, every sector needs an antenna only; At the same time because be in double polarization antenna, the polarization orthogonality sex of 45 ° of ± can assure + 45 ° and - the segregation between two pairs of antenna spends 45 ° contented intermodulation leaves spent requirement to aerial interval

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